Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Effects of Language Difference on Subsidiary Performance - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that multinational enterprises investment firms struggle to diversify in their field of investment in foreign countries. This is because they focus on hiring and recruiting new employees of different language backgrounds in their respective nationalities. Language can be termed or described a chosen unique system of conceptual symbols that let individuals communicate effectively. Language generally is the greatest used mediator which facilitates understanding and relation between management, employees, and customers of every given business. A multi linguistic human resource usually gives out benefits, for example, a larger and wider range of perspectives. This workforce also gives a greater competitive ability generally in the marketplace globally. Multinational enterprises that are venturing into new economies are faced with the new language and cultures which should be overcome to ensure organizational goals and objectives are achieved. M ultinational enterprises can be defined as financial firms and entities that are involved in the supply of services and goods in at least two or more economies. These corporations are large in size and they are involved in different forms and fields of business activities in different countries. Increased competition, venturing into new business form and globalization has forced most business firms alongside with their employees to interact with different nationalities. This has been caused by variation in availability of resources. Surveys show that languages play an important part in communication in multinational enterprises. A workforce with different language background may encounter language barrier if working together. This leads to misunderstanding it also suggests that language barrier causes ineffective communication or it may cause miscommunication within a company. According to past studies, they indicate that language does not only facilitate communication. The language barrier will not affect the human resource only, it also hinders effective communication. Customers will find it hard to communicate out their need or even fail to get important information about particular or certain services or products being offered by Multinational Corporation.
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Importance of Communication in Daily Life To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. Anthony Robbins Communication Is Integral To Human Life Communication is deeply intertwined with the human existence. It is an integral part of it. One cannot think of human life without communication. Can you imagine what would happen if you are not allowed to talk for a long time? You would feel suffocated. In personal life, we need to communicate to deal with various concerns and problems of daily life. In professional life also, it is communication that helps us to build healthy relations and credibility with co-workers. Only speaking/talking is not communication. Communication can take place in many forms. Sometimes, we communicate by talking about our ideas, thoughts or emotions; at other times, we may wish to communicate through the written word or even non-verbally. Whatever form we choose, getting the message across is what communication is all about. Communication is a process that is dynamic, continuous, and irreversible but at the same time, it is reciprocal in nature. It is an ongoing process. Roughly, we can define communication as a shared meaning between two or more individuals. The shared meaning arises out of the individuals experiences, background, education and training. Similarity in experiences, background, training, etc. makes communication successful between individuals. Communication helps us to understand others. The inability to communicate can lead to a lot of problems both personally and professionally. Imagine a day without communicating! We can instantly feel the void it would create. Can we ever forget that it is our ability to communicate verbally that distinguishes us from animals? Communication helps form a powerful bond among people and makes us social beings. Besides, knowledge is not the sole requirement for the achievement of success. A person may possess good knowledge, but his/her performance will be evaluated largely on the basis of his/her ability to communicate. Therefore, if you are a good communicator, you have better chances of success in life and in business. 1.2 COMMUNICATION FOR BUSINESS Communication has become indispensable today. Human activity will come to a standstill if there is no communication. All human transactions become possible only through communication. It is the life-blood of every business organization. Especially in todays globalized market economy, effective communication is vital to the success and survival of any organization. Businesses need people with good communication skills because communication is an essential part of the kind of work that is done in business organizations. It extends across all areas of business, including managerial, technical, clerical and social positions. In present times, several factors have contributed to the significance of communication. They are- faster means of communication because of scientific and technological advancements shrinking geographical boundaries because of the availability of faster means of transport growth of the multinational companies that has resulted in the creation of a globalized market economy generation of highly advanced management techniques as a result of the growing importance of professionalism in the management of business the information revolution that has brought with it highly sophisticated networking technologies multiplication of systems of communication at all levels of organization because of specialized knowledge that has lead to departmentalization advancements in the field of social sciences such as in psychology and in sociology that have created an awareness about the human mind and behaviour and how they influence communication Communication undertaken by a business organization with the purpose of achieving certain specific goals is known as business communication. In fact, business communication is a special type of communication undertaken to meet the needs of the organization. Powerful concepts in modern management like participation, motivation, involvement revolve around communication. According to R. Ludlow, Business communication is a process of transfer of information and understanding between different parts and people of a business organization. It consists of various modes and media involved in communication interchanges. Effective communication is needed for growth and development of any organization. H.G. Hicks has rightly pointed out- Communication is basic to an organizations existence from birth of the organization; when communication stops, organized activity ceases to exist. Improving communication skills improves the chances for success of a business. Effective communication brings progress and prosperity to it. Moreover, in this age of specialization, planning, production, sales, advertising, finance, welfare, etc. are handled by different departments. In absence of effective communication, there would be a serious problem of co-ordination among these departments and there would only be chaos and confusion in the organization. Communication is also quite significant keeping in mind the growing importance of human relations and human resource management in todays world. Communication helps a manager in developing meaningful relationships with the subordinates, changing their attitudes, boosting their morale and soliciting their cooperation. Communication links people together to achieve common goals. It is also required to maintain good public relations. Thus, executives are often expected to give speeches and interviews to the media in order to project a favourable image of the organization. Effective communication is required to handle various crises and conflicts of interests in an organization. It is also needed in order to impart adequate training to the employees in handling latest technology. Subordinates often resent the introduction of changes in the methods of working. This poses a challenge to the management to educate the employees so that they can smoothly adapt to the dynamic character of the organization. They also have to work at alleviating the fear that these changes are likely to generate unemployment. Thus, effective communication can help in changing the negative attitude of the employees towards technological advancement. It facilitates meetings which play an important role in the functioning of an organization. Effective business communication depends not only on the skills of the sender of the message but also on the skills of the one who receives that message. Thus, one may say that communication is not an end in itself; rather, it is a means to achieve an end. 1.3 PRE-REQUISITES OF COMMUNICATION Now the question is- What is communication and how it can be accomplished? What do we require to carry out communication? Hence, prior to looking at the meaning of communication, it would be helpful to know how we prepare for it. For instance, you want to write a letter. What all do you need for it? A piece of paper. A pen. A desk for support. Is there anything else that you require besides these things? Certainly you do. You need to dwell on three important things- 1. Purpose 2. Content 3. Skills These three precede all speaking or writing. WHAT TO COMMUNICATE- CONTENT Information Observation/ Receive by Select/Reject Think and Understanding Attention listening or as per your evaluate results into by reading interest, need the information knowledge or expectation This is how information is processed in to being knowledge. Knowledge generates in you the confidence to communicate. If you are well prepared with the content, then half the work is done. It is the urge to express something that begins communication. It can be an idea, an emotion, an opinion or some information. Without this basic idea/need, there can be no communication. However, we do not communicate whatever comes to our mind immediately. There is a need to plan- what to communicate, how to communicate and whom to communicate it to. We do not communicate without a purpose; therefore, it is essential to answer these questions before actually communicating. This helps us to communicate effectively and to get a desirable response from the person with whom we are exchanging our ideas. WHY TO COMMUNICATE- PURPOSE Speakers/ will hear/see Purpose of Writers Listener/ Communication Expectation Reader will listen/read will understand will act/respond THE PURPOSE IS FULFILLED Purpose is the primary pre-requisite of all meaningful communication. The sender initiates communication with some purpose i.e. expectation. S/he expects the receiver to hear/see his message, to listen/read it attentively, to understand it and to act/respond to it. When the receiver gives feedback or performs the expected action, then communication is said to be successful. However, the response would depend on various factors like concentration, physical surroundings and psychological makeup of the receiver. The next question is- how do we communicate? Communication does not just mean speaking or writing. We are communicating even when we smile or shrug our shoulders. However, when we decide to communicate, we need some medium through which to transfer that idea to the other person. HOW TO COMMUNICATE- SKILLS You may possess good knowledge and may be ready to convey it but if you do not know how to do it, it would not be effective. Poor speaking or writing skills is a real hurdle in communication. Speaking Skills Read aloud: Take a small piece of writing from a newspaper, magazine or a book and read it out loud. This will help you to know how you speak- your voice tone, pitch, etc. Observe: Observe how people speak- their pronunciation, accent, intonation, stress, style, rhythm, etc. Try to emulate the speaking style of good speakers. This will help you to improve your own style of speaking. (For a detailed note on speaking skills, writing skills and non-verbal communication, refer Chapter 2 Types of Communication.) Just the idea/information that the communicator has, the media of transmission available and the presence of the receiver are not enough for communication to take place. We need a proper context and an atmosphere where there are no hindrances in the communication process. Does communication end after the idea is communicated? As stated earlier, we communicate with a purpose. Expression of the idea/information is half the work done. But communication is considered complete only when there is some response from the receiver. Only then we can say that the purpose of communication is fulfilled. Communication involves three basic activities on the part of both the participants i.e. the sender and the receiver. On the senders part, they are- Thinking to develop the content to form a message Speaking/Writing to convey the message to the other person Feeling to make the message persuasive On the receivers part, the activities include- Listening/Reading to absorb the idea/information contained in the message Interpreting to understand the meaning of the message Responding to convey the acceptance or the disagreement with the message Communication has always been an important part of human life. Language and the ability to express ourselves using that language come to us spontaneously. And the need to communicate is so inherent in human nature that we hardly realize that effective communication skills can be acquired and honed. There are four basic communication skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading. They always work in the following adjacency pairs- Speaking/writing is handled by the sender of the message and listening/reading by the receiver of the message. Mastering these four skills is very essential if one wants to become an effective communicator. As children, we learn to speak by listening first. Thus, listening is the first skill that we acquire as we develop the language instinct. Then follows the reading skills once we start schooling and lastly we learn the writing skills as a part of our formal education. Thus, learning language/s and the related communication skills follow a systematic process. It does not happen accidentally and instantaneously. Despite of this, people often turn out to be poor communicators as most of us tend to take its importance for granted. Most of the time, we fail to achieve our objective while we communicate. This happens because of our failure to convey our ideas in a precise and clearly understandable manner. There may be a lack either in the content of the message or in the way in which it is conveyed to the intended audience, or both. The point is we do not normally focus much on what to communicate, when to communicate and how to communicate. Also, we need to consider another equally important aspect why to communicate i.e. the purpose. Thus, it is very important for us to recognize and study the essential elements involved in the process of communication in order to become effective communicators. Every aspect of life, whether personal, social or professional, involves communication. The basic meaning of the word communication is- an exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behaviour. The meaning of the word has not undergone much change. However, the ways and means of communication have changed greatly as a result of technological and other socio-cultural developments in recent times. Thus, these advancements have added numerous new dimensions to the communication process, which has become more complex over a period of time. It, thus, calls for a detailed study of the various components that are involved in it in order to be able to communicate effectively. 1.4 DEFINING COMMUNICATION In order to understand the term communication, it would be useful to have a look at some definitions given by the experts. The word communication is derived from the Latin word communis which means to transmit, to impart, to exchange, to share, or to convey. Communication means the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium. (Oxford English Dictionary) Communication is a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information but also create and share meaning. (Business Dictionary) According to Newman and Summer, Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. Keith Davis states Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. F.G. Meyer defines communication as the intercourse by words, letters or messages, the intercourse of thoughts or opinions. It is the act of making ones ideas and opinions known to others. In the words of Theo Haimann, Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to anotherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ it is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others. According to C.G. Brown, Communication has been defined as the transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence or becomes an exchange or interchange. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver. William Scott defines communication as a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals. Louis A. Allen says, Communication is the sum of all the things which a person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding. According to McFarland, Communication may be broadly defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is a process by which meanings are perceived and understanding is reached among human beings. These definitions explain communication as a process of passing information and understanding (Keith Davis) a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding (Business Dictionary) the act of making ones ideas and opinions known to others (F.G. Meyer) the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others (Theo Haimann) the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions (William Scott) a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding (Louis A. Allen) a process by which meanings are perceived and understanding is reached among human beings (McFarland) Thus, these definitions adequately highlight and express in concise form the important features of the process of communication. In short, we can define communication as a process in which two or more elements of a system interact in order to achieve a desired outcome or goal. (Larry L. Barker and Deborah A. Gaut, Communication; 2001) 1.5 FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION On the basis of the above discussion, let us now discuss certain important features of the process of communication. 1. It is an exchange of ideas. Communication is the process through which an exchange of information takes place. It is the sharing of information, ideas, concepts and messages. 2. Two parties are involved in it. In communication, the exchange of information takes place between two or more persons. This implies that there are minimum two people involved in the communication process at any given time. The one who initiates the exchange is the sender of the message (speaker/writer) and the one who receives and interprets it is the receiver of the message (listener/reader). 3. It is a two-way process. Communication is a two-way process of exchanging ideas or information. One person alone cannot carry out communication. When you communicate, there has to be a receiver or an audience that would reciprocate. Then only your communication can be complete. Thus, communication is a process of transmitting and receiving verbal and non-verbal messages. It is considered effective only when it achieves the desired reaction or response from the receiver. The response may be positive or negative. In case of absence of any response, communication is incomplete. Thus, communication is effective only when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received successfully, understood fully, and responded to promptly. 1.6 OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION There is no human action that is done without any purpose. Even the simplest and most natural action like breathing has a purpose- to stay alive. Communication is also always carried out with some purpose. (Refer 1.3 Pre-requisites of Communication) Communication begins with two-fold objectives or purposes that occupy the senders mind: Immediate or Primary to convey or to share Objectives information of Communication Ultimate or Secondary to convince or to persuade people To inform and to persuade are the two basic purposes (goals) that are ever present in the mind of a communicator. Sometimes, he seeks only to inform, as in scientific writings; sometimes, his goal is to persuade the reader, as in journalistic writings; and oftentimes, he wants both to inform and to persuade the reader, as in sales letters, advertisements, etc. Communication is vital to business. The communication activities of an organization fall into three broad categories: 1. Intra-organisational Communication FORMAL Business 2. Inter-organisational Communication Communication 3. Personal INFORMAL Communication 1. Intra-Organisational Communication It is communication within an organization. It is done to implement business plans. It takes many forms like orders, instructions, reports, emails, etc. 2. Inter-Organisational Communication It is communication that a business organization does with people outside the organization i.e. with other companies, customers, clients, general public, etc. It takes the form of planned publicity to improve its image and public relations with the help of business messages, advertising, displays, etc. The success of a business depends on its ability to fulfill the customers needs. Besides providing services, it must communicate effectively with outside people and groups for its success. 3. Personal Communication It is communication without a specific business objective i.e. without an ulterior motive or purpose. Man is a social animal, therefore we have a compulsive need to communicate even when we have nothing substantial to convey. Such communication also occurs in the workplace. For example, personal conversations, gossip, Grapevine phenomenon, etc. If one is not allowed to engage in such casual communication, it may lead to frustration and other such psychological problems. (For a more detailed discussion on corporate communication, refer Chapter 7 Formal and Informal Networks of Communication.) The primary objective of communication is to convey or share information. Business organizations have to deal with a large and varied amount of information on a daily basis in order to conduct various business activities. Thus, proper flow of information helps them to make right decisions. Another equally important objective of communication is to persuade people to accept a point of view or to change their attitude and accept a new or modified attitude. Persuasion is achieved through logical arguments or an emotional appeal to accept the change. Advertisements are an apt example of the persuasive nature of communication. Essentially, all communication is a deliberate and intentional act of persuasion. A communicator wants the reader not only to understand the message but also to be influenced as intended by him. (For a detailed discussion, refer 10.6 Persuasive Communication, Chapter 10 Nature of Attitude and its Influence on Communication) Communication helps to convey information from experts to trainees in an organization for the purpose of educating or training them to handle new technology or to adapt to the changes in the work environment. Communication is an effective tool in the hands of the managers to motivate and to boost the morale of the employees. This enables the organization to achieve higher productivity. Through advice and counseling, the management can help the employees in dealing with their emotional problems as well as problems pertaining to maladjustment and also to give career guidance. By means of letters of appreciation, special mention in reports, minutes of meetings, etc., the management can appreciate the work of the employees. In case of strikes, lockouts, and dismissal of individual employees or disciplinary action against them, the management uses communication channels to issue warnings. Communication also helps in co-ordination of intra-organisational activities, inter-organisational transactions, business transactions, and commercial transactions by means of conferences, meetings, advertisements, requests, suggestions, reviews, and discussions. Without communication, coordinating the activities of different persons engaged in running a business is a remote possibility. The management and the subordinates come closer through communication. Communication promotes cooperation and good industrial relations as it conveys feelings, ideas, opinions, and viewpoints of one party to the other party. The policies and programs formulated by the organization to guide the workforce have to be conveyed to those who are responsible for the execution of work to achieve the organizational objectives. Only effective communication can translate the plans into actions. It aids teamwork by enabling people to work together. It helps perform basic management functions like instructing, coordinating, staffing, planning, etc. Thus, these are the few important objectives of communication in the context of business organizations. So far, we have discussed what comprises communication and the significance of communication in our personal, social as well professional life. We have also highlighted some of the fundamentals of communication. Let us now analyse the process of communication and see how it is accomplished. 1.7 PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Process is a series of things done to achieve something. Communication also follows a process. Communication begins when the sender/encoder identifies the need to communicate some idea/concept/information. He then encodes/formulates it into a message using a medium which can be understood by the receiver/decoder of the message who in turn processes it in his mind and responds to it. When the decoder understands the message completely, fidelity of communication is said to be 100% and the communication process is said to be complete. (Refer David Berlos Model of Communication) Thus, communication is a two-way process. Fidelity of Communication Idea Idea Concept Encoder Medium Decoder Concept Message Message Information Information Fidelity of Communication David Berlos Model of Communication If necessary, the receiver may send a reply or may respond or react to the message. This response or reaction is also known as feedback. But sometimes, there may be no response at all from the receiver even if it is required. Absence of feedback can be attributed to either of the following reasons- a) the message does not reach the receiver or b) the receiver fails to understand the message. Such situations may arise due to the presence of some factor/s that can- a) obstruct the message from being transmitted or b) distort the meaning of the message. The factors that hamper the flow of communication are known as barriers to communication. (Refer Chapter 4 Resolving Barriers to Communication) Communication occurs in five phases and it consists of the following eight components which are inter-related: Idea Sender/Encoder (Speaker/Writer) Encoding Message Channel and Medium Receiver/Decoder (Reader/Listener) Decoding Feedback Let us now discuss in detail the various stages and elements involved in the communication process. PHASE I- IDEATING: 1) Idea Every message whether oral or written has its origin in an idea that germinates in the mind of the sender of the message. Every idea refers to some context. Context is a common frame of reference within which the sender and the receiver communicate with each other. Thus, the idea or information that the sender wants to convey to the receiver is the source of the message in the communication process. 2) Sender/Encoder The person who initiates the communication process is referred to as the encoder. The process of communication begins with the sender who identifies the need to communicate. He may want to inform or to persuade or to influence or to make the receiver take a particular course of action. The sender must have a clear picture in his mind about what he wants to communicate and should accordingly select symbols, words, images, etc. that would best convey his ideas to the receiver. He must identify his audience and formulate the message in such a way that the receiver understands fully what he intends to convey and interprets it within the same context. PHASE II- ENCODING: 3) Encoding Encoding takes place when the sender formulates his idea into a message to be transmitted to the receiver, using a series of symbols- verbal and/or non-verbal, written or oral. The sender should encode his message keeping in mind the purpose of communication and he should select words or symbols so as to make the receiver understand the communication correctly and to achieve the expected feedback. The sender as well as the receiver should attach the same meaning to the symbols or words, otherwise communication would fail. Thus, proper encoding is essential for successful communication. 4) Message That which is encoded, i.e. the idea/concept/information, is the message. Message is an idea transformed into words. It can be expressed in different ways depending on the subject-matter, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural background of the sender. It can be transmitted effectively only when it is well-formulated, clear, and complete in itself. PHASE III- TRANSMITTING: 5) Channel and Medium An appropriate medium chosen to send the message is known as channel. It is the vehicle which facilitates the sender to convey the message to the receiver. Channel is the system used to transmit a message, whereas medium is one of the forms or types used under that system. For example, oral communication is a channel and telephone conversation (a form of oral communication) is a medium. There are three broad channels of communication and there are several media under each- Channel Medium 1. Oral face-to-face conversation, telephone conversation, audio-tapes, voice mail, etc. 2. Written letters, memos, reports, manuals, notices, circulars, questionnaires, minutes, email, fax, etc. 3. Audio-visual cinema, television, video-tapes, video conferences, video chat, etc. Thus, there is a difference between medium and channel. The sender should decide the best possible channel and medium to transmit the message. The selection of an appropriate channel/medium would be influenced by the following factors- a) the nature of the message, b) the urgency of the message, c) the number of receivers, d) the cost factor, and e) the relationship between the sender and the receiver. PHASE IV- RECEIVING: 6) Receiver/Decoder The person who receives the encoded message is referred to as the decoder. He is the intended audience of the message. The receiver may be an individual or a group of individuals. As communication is a two-way process, the receiver is as important as the sender of the message. Communication will not be complete in the following situations- a) in the absence of the receiver, b) if the message does not reach the right/intended receiver, and c) if the receiver does not understand the message. A receiver may be a listener or a reader or a viewer of the message. He not only receives the message but also tries to understand, interpret, and perceive the total meaning of the message, as was intended by the sender, and gives necessary feedback. 7) Decoding It is a process by which the receiver interprets the message and translates it into meaningful information. The meaning of the message is the sum total of the meanings of the words (symbols) together with the tone and the attitude of the sender as reflected by his choice of w
Monday, January 20, 2020
Brief Many organisations are addressing the relationship they have with stakeholders. Select an organisation that is currently changing its policies towards stakeholders and, acting the role of a key stakeholder representative prepare a positioning statement/report that summarises key issues for your supporters. Background In 1875 J H Mills in Bristol opened a small family grocery store, and in 1900 became a limited company with 12 shops. J H Mills Ltd. turned into Gateway, in 1950, when a major finance house became the major shareholder. The J H Mills shops were then converted to become self-service type supermarkets. Throughout the late 20th century the amount of stores increased dramatically with takeovers and different acquisitions across the country. In 1996 Gateway food markets turned into Somerfield and was floated on the stock exchange and became a plc. The Somerfield group is made up of four separate businesses, which together operate over 1400 stores nationwide in the UK. Firstly, the Somerfield Stores division consists of around 1,000 stores incorporating Somerfield Stores and approximately 450 Kwik Save Stores. Somerfield is a modern high street retailer offering fresh foods, groceries, and household needs. The Kwik Save division was introduced to Somerfield when they announced their unconditional merger on March 20, 1998. Kwik Save's philosophy is to provide a full range of quality products at the lowest price on the high street. The idea was all about no frills low pricing. Somerfield started a Ã £1 billion programme to convert Kwik Save stores to Somerfield and also modernising the original Somerfield stores. Somerfield's third business is the Convenience division, a group of about 100 stores, ideal for 'top-up' shoppers, offering a range of groceries and provisions in a small store format located in convenient positions. The last of the businesses is Somerfield 24-7, a new, recent venture that allows people to shop for groceries without going into any of the supermarkets, by using the phone, Internet or interactive television and getting the goods delivered to their door. I am a representative for the employees of Somerfield plc. Report On Thursday November 11 Somerfield announced the sale of up to 490 stores and a reduction in its central office and distribution business. The board has decided to focus Somerfield operations on a potential Ã £30 billion neighbourhood food retailer market. Somerfield currently has approximately 10% of this market and believes it can increase its market share by further emphasising the importance of fresh food, improving the ease of shopping and developing a more responsive culture from its employees.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Education and experience in the secular set-up or the what we call here as Athens wisdom believes differently from the biblical standpoint in whatever aspect of life. Psychology in general, though embraces somewhat a neutral position according to some proponents, is not able to do justice to a balanced view of human behavior and most if not all of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Indeed, Author Dr. Entwistle (2004) argues about the general tendency to dichotomize or what he said as Ã¢â¬Å"to buy into the dichotomy between the Ã¢â¬ËsacredÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËsecularÃ¢â¬â¢ which is what seeing Jerusalem and Athens as Ã¢â¬Å"mutually exclusive categories. Ã¢â¬ From the outset I would like to say my piece regarding the point where Dr. Entwistle is coming from without sounding arrogant in the same vein. He has mentioned a lot about presupposition while at the same time sounds like he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t anything about presuppositions. When he separated Ã¢â¬Å"JerusalemÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"ChurchÃ¢â¬ in his book, I immediately detected his lack of background in the realm of biblical theology. At the heart of Christianity or the Church that Dr. Entwistle is referring to, there is no such dichotomy. The Church in every dimension of it (or Christianity as we aptly put it) does not do any separation unless what Christ has separated. Meaning, our premise or presupposition starts with the fact that the Church and Christian spirituality or faith if one would put it simply, stands on the Judaeo-Christian context not a choice between Ã¢â¬Å"JerusalemÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Church. Ã¢â¬ The fundamental difference lies in the great divide between Christianity and Athens or secular wisdom. It is only between the secular wisdom and biblical knowledge does the Bible place a dichotomy. Let me state what led me to this view: it is because, theologically speaking, biblical authors explicitly wrote in their letters from the Old to the New Testament Scriptures that God has His own laws and statutes through which life in general must be regulated. The same knowledge explicitly and implicitly runs through the fabric of the whole Scripture (Old & New), which means that the presuppositions of all of the Biblical authors, all fall into one primary presupposition: that there is one God, and that this One God has revealed Himself through His laws and statutes. Without the laws of God, man alone, with all of his learning, if they are all apart from the revelation of God, is mere natural or secular. This is the reason that every man ought to know these laws or statutes or biblical principles and only then can he apply these into all aspects of his secular life. This could have been what Dr. Entwistle intended to mean. One cannot come from the opposite side as what Dr. Entwistle had done instead as he hinged the argument from secular to the theological; though he tried to get his ideas from the likes of great men like Dr. A. W. Tozer and others. All those peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments come from biblical presupposition: they have thorough knowledge of the Scriptures that they applied to various realms of life which in turn caused them to spur their readers to do the same. Trying to oppose the standpoint of apologist Tertullian, Dr. Entwistle seemingly misunderstands all of their positions, thus complicating what could have been an uncomplicated and unified stream of thought. The main contributing factors that led me to this viewpoint are my personal study of the Bible, and some works (massive) of Biblical scholars. The following discussion of renewing the mind then is a by-product of my own presupposition derived from the influence of these Biblical Scholars which include contemporary theologians like Dr. Vincent Cheung, Dr. Philip Johnson, and the father of Presuppositional apologetics Cornelius Van Til, to name a few. This thorough discussion of counsel of the wicked (representing secular or Athens wisdom) and the discriminative counsel which embraces all of Judaeo- Christian principles (as all contained in the Bible) captures best the essence of faith-spirituality molded from this basic presupposition. The dichotomy is between what the Bible says all throughout as the Wicked or ungodly counsel versus that of Godly wisdom. Dr. Entwistle unintentionally pursued a trichotomous delineation of Judeao-Christian theological thinking from secular. This is not proper. Discussion Christians know that a big portion of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s work in their lives is concentrated on renewal of the mind. Our born again experience signaled the beginning of a new life for us rather than, as have been used by many figuratively, the end of our lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for truth. It is the start of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s real life in that it is the time when a person experiences the quickening work of God through His Spirit (Ephesians 2:1-7). LetÃ¢â¬â¢s think for a while our past life as portrayed to us in the Bible: 1. ) We were once dead spiritually Ã¢â¬â in trespasses and sins; 2. ) We once walked (lived our lives) according to the course of this world; 3. ) We once lived our lives (knowingly or unknowingly) controlled by Satan; 4. ) We once behaved in a way that in everything we do, we only fulfill our desires and what Ã¢â¬â in our minds Ã¢â¬â looked good and pleasant. Now, knowing that we are naturally (without the saving power of God) unresponsive to God and fully responsive to the things that are not of God, we recognize our great need to be renewed or our minds oriented to the things of God Ã¢â¬â things that really matter to Him and in this life (Romans 12:1-2). I. Discriminative Counsel. 1. ) Biblical/Godly Counsel Ã¢â¬â Its Necessity. There is a trend being proliferated in the area of guidance or direction in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The premise, if looked at the surface, seems to be sound and Biblical. It is somehow taken from the Bible. They are from the book of Proverbs. Ã¢â¬Å"Where there is no counsel, the people fall; but in the multitude of counselors there is safety. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Proverbs 11:14. Ã¢â¬Å"Without counsel, plans go awry, but in the multitude of counselors they are established. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Proverbs 15:22. These verses, however, when balanced with other portions of the Scripture, do not say that believers should heed suggestions from others without discrimination. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take for example Psalms 1:1-6. Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed is the man who walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stands in the path of sinners, nor sits in the seat of the scornful; but his delight is in the law of the LORD, and in His law he meditates day and night. He shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that brings forth its fruit in its season, whose leaf also shall not wither; and whatever he does shall prosper. The ungodly are not so, But are like the chaff which the wind drives away. Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, or sin- ners in the congregation of the righteous. For the LORD knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the ungodly shall perish. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â It says here that the Ã¢â¬Å"blessed manÃ¢â¬ is he whose delight is in Ã¢â¬Å"the law of the Lord. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â He meditates on it Ã¢â¬Å"day and nightÃ¢â¬ (v. 2). What the Bible calls as Ã¢â¬Å"blessedÃ¢â¬ are not those who just swallow every information or trends who happen to be around. The blessed manÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"delightÃ¢â¬ is in the law of the Lord, and his pleasure to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s law/word is made evident in his Ã¢â¬Å"meditatingÃ¢â¬ on it Ã¢â¬Å"day and night. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed is the man who walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stands in the path of sinners, nor sits in the seat of the scornful; but his delight is in the law of the LORD, and in His law he meditates day and night. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Psalms 1:1-2. On the other hand, this is also a warning. A warning to those who are not careful and would let down their guard with regards to their upholding the habit of meditating or checking everything with the teachings of the Scriptures. When someone starts to entertain the seemingly harmless conventional Ã¢â¬Å"advicesÃ¢â¬ of the world without allowing the Bible (GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Word) to filter those opinions/suggestions, the lurking danger sets in and the undiscerning is on his way to the wrong direction for he has already given thought to Ã¢â¬Å"ungodly counsel. Ã¢â¬ He entertained and has given a benefit of the doubt to counsel other than GodÃ¢â¬â¢s counsel. This is a classic case of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word versus SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s lies. The enemy succeeded in tempting the first couple Ã¢â¬â Adam and Eve. Ã¢â¬Å"Then the LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Genesis 2:15-17. Going back to our immediate text in Psalms 1:1, letÃ¢â¬â¢s try to divide its wordings in three divisions and see what does it say? It says: Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed is the man who does not (1) walk in the counsel of the wicked (2) stand in the way of sinners (3) sit in the seat of mockers. These three expressions are actually three stages of wickedness, or three steps towards spiritual deterioration. They illustrate the progressive stages of wickedness into which one who strays from God enters. According to the Word of God, this is what will happen to people who stray from the sound teachings of the Scriptures Ã¢â¬â they will go from bad to worse. And note that, with each stage, the ungodly (anybody who ventures on this path is called Ã¢â¬Å"ungodlyÃ¢â¬ ) becomes more resolute and his hostility against the counsel of the inspired scriptures and righteousness intensifies (Cheung, 2007).
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 3053 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? 5.2 Pakistan Petroleum Limited: PPL has sustained itself as gas exploration and leading oil, production company and it is running which major gas field in country for above all, the company in question hold credit not only for having laid the foundation stone of natural gas industry in Pakistan, but it is also giving a substantial and required energy base in its formative year, offering valuable assistance to the structure and advancement of national economy. Gas production by PPL has reached total gas production is 30% in the country. In order to keep pace with the urges and demands of socio-economic changes, PPL has invariably managed to enlarge, strengthen and improve its role as a well-disposed corporate citizen since its kicking off in 1950. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Legal, Ethical and Philanthropic Responsibility of Various Corporations" essay for you Create order It has formed a PPL welfare trust which is committed to bringing forth its energy and resources to community development projects in particular place in which consultation to with all its stakeholders, local community is particularly. The uninterrupted and expanding community development activities are dedicated to the task of improving in quality of health and care services, providing education facilities as well as developing infrastructure to the benefit to people who are living sound area of companys operations . 5.3 Shell Pakistan: There is hardly anyone who is not cognizant of Shell Pakistan. It is famous among the companies in the gas and oil sector of Pakistan. . Shell has a 100 year sound and successful track record in this particular area of the world. Although it has embarked upon a number of joint ventures and mergers from 1899 to 2007, Shell Pakistan is its final identity. Currently the Shell is focused on a mission of sustainable development and promises that f uture of it which linked to the future of Pakistan. . The company holds the stance that Pakistani people have tended to change the trajectory of their expectations from the big business firms and companies. These expectations comp[rise safe places to live and work, a conducive surrounding for education and health, Conservation to the bio diversity, clean air, environmental protection, clean water, reasonable of return on investment as well as providing job opportunities and so on. It is believe of Shell Pakistan that the way of manage to these challenges commitment through to the principles of sustainable development. Principle of these are included the robust profit to generation and giving value delivery to the customers, management of resources and environmental protection and providing benefits for the communities as well as management to resources, giving benefits to the communities, providing safety, respect to the people who are working with stakeholders, shell are being to a responsible corporate citizen, has always contributed for community by difference activities as well as shells bulk oil installation at Machike is not exception The shells policy on Shell in Society to a free eye testing and camping was arranged on 10th April 2012 at Machike with collaboration with Lyton Rehmatullah Benevolent Trust (LRBT). In its aim to get the sustainable development across, Shell Pakistan participates in a number of activities ranging from providing benefits to the individual to the welfare of society at large. The activities in question include for free eye camp and also in camps in the northern areas of Pakistan, Shell tamer programme and road safety program. Shell Pakistan has brought to the full commitment fore to the society benefits by its afore-mentioned activities. Holding the status of a responsible corporate entity, Shell Pakistan invests in four social sectors: health, education, heritage and environment. Shell Pakistan giving funds into differe nt vocational institutes, educational and hospitals, rich heritage sites as well as other Social development programs which are notable to amongst which are Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust (LRBT) Behbud Association, the Kidnety Centre, human rights education programme. CSR index approach is taken by Shell Pakistan as building a soft social posture of the company. Some important indicators of CSR are looked over by the company.. 5.4 Barclays Bank Barclays Bank has started commercially in Pakistan in the year 2008 and initiated CSR Projects and made Partnership with UNICF for uplifting the life of poor standard in Pakistan. Barclay Bank adopted a comprehensive strategy sustainability in Pakistan As per Mohsin Nathani Managing Director and country head of Barclays Pakistan, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âInvesting in the Community is an important part of Barclays sustainability strategy. We have our business will benefit from contributing to the development sustainability of the c ommunities we operate in (Internet 1, Barclays Pk, 2012 ) Legal Responsibility According to their website Barclays has demonstrated its legal responsibility by honestly following the rules and regulation which make them a global citizen. To become a good corporate citizen, The Barclay is not only behaving ethically but also trying to deal with different social issues by working collectively with a various NGO in Pakistan. Barclay started work with different NGO regarding promoting better education, good health and other human rights issues. To solve humanitarian issues and child labour issues. Barcaly is also working with UNICEF and HOPE in NGO for Child education and promoting health facilities. Barclays HOPE home Schools are proliferating in different parts of the country. These school not only imparting good education among children but also giving employment to various teachers in the school. Ethical Responsibility To behave ethically to their employees and stakeh olders, Barclay has started looking after local community programs in the global world where they are active to take care of local community. It is the best way probably to engage in the Local Community. The strategy to look after local community they have adopted which explained below :- Barclays Pakistan has an agreement with Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), by bearing complete monthly cost for one day dialysis of each month. This project was started from November 2008 to January 2010. In 2009 SIUT spent over PKR. 1.2 billion providing treatment to 650,000 patients around Pakistan. This is a great attempt by Barclays Pakistan for covering medical expense for the patient who is unable to bear dialysis cost. (Internet 3, barclays.pk, 2010) Philanthropic responsibility Charity Begins at work is Barclays program mission to encourage their employees to engage in supporting the causes and also persuading of their employees to actively participate volunteer ing work.. Charity begins at work is also an important component of the Barclays investment program. Barclays provide different charity supports such as Match fundraising in local area to help in sports and health activities, grants for volunteering, providing food in the days of Ramdan etc.. For the fund raising activity, Barclays team Operational Risk and Control Rigor (ORCR) organizes an event The Colours of Pakistan. The objective of this program was to enhance fund, these funds will get benefit deaf student at Family Education Foundation. Since the fund raising activity coincided with Pakistans Independence Day (14th August 1947) the event spontaneously became larger than life and all the more intriguing. In order to make it most of this, a painting competition was also held for Children of Barclays Collegues. The four best painting were featured on greeting cards which were then sold to friends, familes and customers across the country as activity for furnd raising. (Internet 4,m Barclays.pk 2010) 5.5 Pakistan State Oil (PSO): PSO has achieved a glorious success in the oil market as an unparalled leader in Pakistan which enjoying over 79% share of Black Oil market, 58% share to White oil market. It is well placed in its committed tasks in storage, import, marketing of various POL products and distribution including HSD, Mogas, Jel Fuel, Fuel Oil, Kerosene, CNG, LPG and petro chemicals. This blue chip is a company, the winner of Karachi Stock Exchange Top Companies Award and this is member of World Economic Forum, has been a famous and oft referred topic of case studies in Pakistan also abroad thanks to its radical corporate turnaround over to the last 5 years. One of the most successful being companies, PSO pays high and equal heed for looking of its stakeholder environment. The company has a vigorous conviction that its remarkable credibility is linked with the good and principle-oriented corporate behaviour. The company deems Corporate Social Res ponsibility as an important aspect of its day-to-day dealing with stakeholders. According to the viewpoint of CSR, the company has its well-established policies which include the efforts to bring about a palatable environment wherein every individual has an equal opportunity to achieving of business success. The aim of company to enhance the economic facet of Pakistan through creating of jobs, business engagement and philanthropy. Besides that, the company also includes the policies of preserving nature, availability of health care, nurturing the environment and providing education facilities to the community. The Corporate citizenship activities including the installation and improvement to the traffic signals into all the major towns and cities of the country. When it comes to the matter of giving equal education opportunities to the citizen, PSO is also providing scholarship to mertitours of business management and engineering students at prestigious university like as Institute of Business Administration Karachi, GIK institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Topi; The Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad; The Punjab University Lahore and University of Engineering Technology Khuzdar. Pakistan State Oil has also a prominent track record in the financial as well as other assistance to genuine Charitable Project like as Family Education Services ,the Kidney Center, DarulK hushnud Center for Mentally Handicapped, Shaukat Khanam Memorial etc. In order to respect to Safety and Environment of employees, health, suppliers, customers, partners and community partners, the company fosters to sustainable utilize of natures resources with motto; Safety First and Integrity always. 5.6 Pak-Arab Refinery Company Limited: (PARCO) PARCO embarked upon for its role as public Limited Company in 1974. This is a Joint Venture between Pakistan and Abu Dhabi. The company holding share 60% the portion of Pakistan Government and Abu Dhabi Petroleum Investment (ADPI) share is 40%. PARCO has successfully passed the span of more than 30 years ever since it came into existence. The voyage of Corporate through these years has been full of important victories. and milestones. In the span of past 17 years, PARCO has grown in size and it is heading towards a brighter future. In the vision statement regarding PARCO, this mention that company has biggest challenge only not to figure-out what right one will future, but is also choose a future that will give a definite advantage competitive to the Company for long term. It seen objectively that this very statement, the mission statement and the other information shown by the company, but do not portray the image of the Company as a social responsible entity. By taking into account the details of all information readable on the website of the company, it clear quietly that though it company is playing a good role to the economic development of the country by job creating through its different projects and it also satisfying their shareholders, the information fails to mention the measures taken by the company to betterment of the education, environment and health facilities provided to community. Consequently, it would be no exaggeration to say that if the company is really engaged in performing the above mentioned CSR activities, it should disclose properly the information; or if it is not performing like such activities then it should ensure that the measures connect to these activities are instantly taken into order for get the public confidence and long term success. 5.7 Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC): The Sui Southern Gas Company was founded on 30th March 1989 by following a series of mergers of 3 pioneering company namely Karachi Gas Company Limited, Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited and Indus Gas Transmission Company Limited, Karachi. SSGC is Pakistans largest integrated gas company. The Company is engaged in the transmission business and distribution of n atural gas in addition to the construction of high pressure transmission as well as low pressure distribution systems. Sui Southern Gas Company Limited transmission system to extend from Sui in Balochistan to Karachi consist of 3200 km of high pressure pipeline ranging from 12-24 in diameter. The activities distribution over 1200 towns in the Baluchistan and Sindh which organized through their regional offices. An average of about 357,129 million cubic feed (MMCFD) gas were sold in 2011-2012 to over 1.9 million industrial, commercial and domestic consumers in these region of through a network distribution of over 29832 km. The Company possess also operates of only gas meter manufacturing plant in the country, having an annual capacity production of over 550, 150 meters. The company has an authorized capital of Rs. 10 billion of which Rs. 6.7 billion is fully paid up and issued. The Government owns a majority of the shares, currently over 70%. SSGL is working with a mission to giving quality services to its customers by maintaining to high level of ethical and professional standards through optimum utilize of resources. SSGL is committed of the responsibility for the community, environment and stakeholders. In order to prove social responsible of the company, following step taken by the Company On November 30, 2006 SSGC established a Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre (MALC) at MirpurKhas. SSGC also grant scholarships to the students at Lahore University Of Management Sciences. These scholarships are given to the students on merit bases. It can thoroughly probe into above reality contribution in the CSR practicing, then it only comes up as a corporate philanthropy. However, the other 3 indicators of manage practices, environmental issued as well as corporate governance are not fully addressed by the given material on website. 5.8 KASB Securities: The KASB Group was established in 1958 by Khadim Ali shah Bukhari. This group has long-standing and far reaching tradition of competence as well as excellence in respect of Financial services in Pakistan. It is known primarily to investment banking, trading / research and asset management. In 1993, KASB became the local partner for the International investment banking firm, Merril Lynch, Recently, Merril lynch acquired to an equity stake in fund of KASB. KASB further holds the view that the way in which they interact with people has a positive impact on their business and reputation. Carrying out its role as a business firm, it strived always to give back to the s ociety by contributing their time as well as resources though for key initial which included the training of employees in order to make leaders in their fields, active sharing of view in shaping policies regarding country, showing commitment to the social projects and promoting development culture and sports. . 5.9 ICI Pakistan Limited: ICI Pakistan Limited is a 75.81% owned subsidiary of ICI PLC UK. This public limited company established in Pakistan in 1952. It has tried always to develop such business portfolios in order to bring together of outstanding knowledge of customer needs with leading edge technology platforms to give high quality products to their customers. These traits show the Companys aim to create superior value of ICI shareholders and customers without it compromising on the commitment to health safety, environment and the communities in which it operates. ICI Pakistan Limited has made a commitment for the development of the Country and Community. As a responsible Corporate citizen, the company has a very distinct Policy regarding CSR in fulfilling their responsibilities to serve the community by its functions. The Company all along has encouraged social development initiatives and encouraged, which included improving enhancing infrastructure facilities in the Education sectors of the country and health care. The Company providing various institutes of excellence with financial support remarkable across the country. ICI Pakistans based on Corporate governance structure on the Companys Articles of Association, Regulatory, Statutory and other compliance requirement applicable to companies listed on the stock exchange, complemented by internal several procedures. These procedures include of a risk assessment control system and a system of assurances on compliance of applicable laws, companys code of conduct and regulations. 6.10 Engro Chemical Pakistan Limited: Engro Corporation Ltd. has been ranked Pakistans leadin g Company for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the 1st Asian sustainability Rating (ASR). ASR ranks 200 which is largest listed Companies in ten countries across Asia, on the basis of transparency disclosure of its CSR policies as well as practices. Besides, the Corporation have also achieve the distinction of being in the only Pakistani Company including in ASRs top 50 Asian Companies. The rating examine companies of their performance in the areas of governance and Policy, Corporate Social Responsibility strategy communication, marketplace and supplying chain, people and workplace, environment as well as community development. Engro is committed for contribution one per cent profit before tax to social investment . 5.11 Unilever Pakistan Limited (UPL) Unilever Pakistan is largest FMCG Company in Pakistan and it is one of the largest multinational operating in the Pakistan. Being a ever expanding company and world class, unilever Pakistan believes that in order to succeed it has to establish as well as maintain the highest standards of Corporate Behavior. As a pioneer company in terms of following concept of CSR in Pakistan, the company has belief strong that as a member of the local community, it has responsibility to give back to the Community which is operates and it can fulfill their responsibility by playing this role for the well being of country as well as society. Therefore, unilever Pakistan has fostered of a necessitate involvement into 3 (three) areas which are the most significant to Pakistan and its people, health and water, education. It comes when to education sector of Pakistan,UPL is also giving funds to different university for better education like in Lahore University Management Sciences (LUMS). As far as concerned the primary education in Pakistan, it has also supporting financial assistant to the NGOÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s which are working to improvement of education like as the Citizen Foundation (TCF). UPL is also giving job opportunity and resources in the Unilever International Art Project for Schools. UPL also tends to provide the water sustainability initiatives. The shortage of water in Pakistan urges the company to come up with effective solution for ensure water conservation and sustainability. In order to show commitment for water sustainability, UPL has made partnership with Thardeep Rural Development Programme (TRDP)  Pakistan Petroleum Limited Economic Review 2-3 2005  Shell Pakistan www.shell.com https://www.shell.com/home/content2/pk-en/society_environment/social_investment/communityandsocial_10171014.html https://www.psopk.com/cr_activieits/PSO CSR activities review 2004. https://www.parco.com.pk/ https://www.ssgc.com.pk/ssgc/society/ KASB: www.kasb.com/corp_citizenship.htm  www.ici.com.pk https://www.engro.com/ https://www.unileverpakistan.com.pk/ourvalues/environmentandsociety/corporate_social_responsibility/default.asp
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Assignment #1: Influence of WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Life and Times No other period in American history did the civilian population suffer the most financially than in the 1930s. The unemployment level rose to an all-time high, and inflation made it nearly impossible for the common man to afford basic luxuries. It was in this era that John Steinbeck wrote a short story based off of migrant laborers set in his hometown of Salinas. The Great Depression of the 1930s, a decade of hardship and destitution, greatly influenced John Steinbeck and his dismal novella, Of Mice and Men. Steinbeck, though raised in a fairly successful family in Salinas, California, knew what it felt like to scrounge for money. Working as a laborer and journalist in New York City,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Wandering around the countryside with nothing but the clothes on their backs and a sack full of personal valuables, these transient workmen were hard hit by the Depression and were forced to travel from job to job to survive. George and Lennie, who journey across California from Weed to Salinas, SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s hometown, spend the novella yearning for the American dream, which to them was embodied in owning a small farm together with rabbits and a garden. This fantasy exhibits the two menÃ¢â¬â¢s loneliness and longing for stability (Of Mice and Men Synopsis). Steinbeck himself personally suffered these feelings while staying in New York after dropping out of Stanford (John Steinbeck Biography). Similar to the real life hardships of the 1930s, Of Mice and Men did not end happily. Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, like many othersÃ¢â¬â¢, did not come true. The Great Depression, aptly named, grieved countless Americans and filled them with desolation. John Steinbeck experienced the emptiness and the poverty suffered by his characters during his time in New York, and used his understanding to weave together a masterful and doleful story inspired by the Great Depression. Assignment #4: Literary Analysis Ã¢â¬Å"It is my natureÃ¢â¬ says the Scorpion to the Frog in the aged fable of Ã¢â¬Å"The Scorpion and the FrogÃ¢â¬ , an allegorical tale with a meaning that parallels Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck. In the fable, a scorpion wishes to travel across
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Known for her ability to succinctly pen elegant and thought provoking poems on a wide range of topics: from self reliance to the turmoils of war, Emily Dickinson remains a pillar of talent and inspiration to this day. While most, if not all, poets reveal elements of themselves within their works Dickinson seems to lay herself bare before her readers; leaving very little left to the imagination. Dickinson achieves this by combining symbolism, allegory and often nimble punctuation within her stanzas. One of the poets most discussed themes seems to be death. From stylized descriptions of the various ways to meet one s end; to the feelings that accompany dying or the loss of a loved one Ã¢â¬â Dickinson explores it all. In the process of her exploration she brings the reader along with her to discover the rationality of religion and the possibility of figurative immortality. Discussing the concept of death within Emily Dickinson s seemingly innumerable poems is a daunting task. Albeit, a task that serves as an eye opening look into the human understanding of dying and all its nuances. Dickinson s penchant for writing about death likely steams from the way she often encountered death in her own life. From losing both of her parents and other important familial figures to living through the civil war; there was no shortage of mortality that Dickson couldn t write about. One of her most notable poems is number 465, or Ã¢â¬Å"I heard a fly buzz Ã¢â¬â when I diedÃ¢â¬ . The opening line itselfShow MoreRelatedEmily Dickinson : The Point When A Reader1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHorieh Introduction to Literature Professor Knoernschild November 27, 2015 Emily Dickinson At the point when a reader hears the name Emily Dickinson, they consider a female who composed verse that has been surely understood for a considerable length of time and years. Much to their dismay that Emily Dickinson established American Literature, and began an entire unrest of verse. The procedure Dickinson used to keep in touch with her verse was at no other time seen and was the foundationRead MoreThe Author That I Decided To Discuss The Literary Significance1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesauthor that I decided to discuss the literary significance is Emily Dickinson. Dickinson was born, raised, and in Amherst, Massachusetts in December 10, 180 and died May 15, 1886 in the same state. Her father was Edward Dickinson, and her mother was also named Emily, Emily Norcross Dickinson. Emily Dickinson went to Mount Holyoke College, a small private school in South Hadley, Massachusetts. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s known as one of the best American Poet. Emily s poem were frequently perceived by a wide ran ge of writersRead MoreEmily Dickinson s I Taste A Liquor Never Brewed 1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDraft: Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson s works made her a woman ahead of her time, through her unwillingness to conform to the norms of society. Emily Dickinson was a poet from the 1850s. Many people tried to urge Dickinson to publish, but she then had to start worrying about her punctuation in her works. Her works held great power and they reached maturity quite quickly as she talks about how dense the natural world is in one of her poems Ã¢â¬Å"I taste a liquor never brewedÃ¢â¬ . Emily Dickinson was bornRead MoreEmily Dickinson s Amazing Gifts As A Poet1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesher. Emily Dickinson became recognized as one of the greatest female poet in American literature after her death in 1886. Emily Dickinson personal life experiences are reflected in her poetry writings. Her poetry shows the difficulties and needs of human relationship with writing that is moving and captivating. Emily Dickinson was born on December 10, 1830 in Amherst Massachusetts. She was well educated and attended the Amherst Academy. Her father was Edward Dickinson, he wasRead MoreAnalysis Of Emily Dickinson s Poem My Life Had Stood- A Loaded Gun 993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmily Dickinson is a very famous and accomplished poet with over 1700 published poems. Several of her poems are similar in theme, and also similar in bringing out human emotions that we humans usually try to avoid. The common theme in most of Dickinson s poems is the wonders of nature, and the identity of self, as well as death and life. The five poems with the common theme of death are: Ã¢â¬Å"My Life had Stood- A Loaded GunÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"I Heard A Fly Buzz- When I DiedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Behind Me Dips- EternityÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Because IRead MoreThe Last Night She Lived By Emily Dickinson1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDavid Kiernan ENG 2012 Professor Walter 12 April 2015 Emily Dickinson Essay Emily Dickinson is renowned for her implications and rhetorical writing style that leaves readers in a state of enlightenment that is required to unveil the true meaning behind her poems. Regardless, less than ten of her eighteen-hundred poems were ever published due to her radical viewpoints and unconventional writing style. Of the few that were ever published, Ã¢â¬Å"The last night she livedÃ¢â¬ is among them. The poem is a trueRead More`` It Was Not Death, For I Stood Up, By Emily Dickinson1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith a specific focus on Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s link of mental illness to reclusiveness within her works titled Ã¢â¬Å"It was not Death, for I stood up,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"After great pain, a Formal feeling comes,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I dwell in Possibility,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My Life had stoodÃ¢â¬âa Loaded Gun,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Tell all the Truth but tell it slantÃ¢â¬ .Ã¢â¬ Emily Dickinson is one of the most influential female poets of the 19th century. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts in 1830, Dickinson began her life as a normal child. Growing up, Dickinson had more opportunitiesRead MoreEmily Dickinson s Influences On Writing889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesENGL-2120-C61 May 2, 2015 Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Influences in Writing: Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬On December 10, 1830, Emily Dickinson was born in her hometown where she would spend the rest of her life, Amherst, Massachusetts. Dickinson enjoyed writing and often credited herself on her wittiness and intelligence. She was a poet who made current events and situations the subjects of many of her writings. Although she wrote throughout her life, some of the poems were not found until after her death. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Family foundRead MoreMuch Madness Is Divinest Sense963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMuch Madness is divinest Sense Emily Dickinson is was a talented and unique poet; some might even call her strange or mad. This poem, in a way, represents her life that was far from what was considered normal. In the 1800s, a certain type of behavior was expected from people, especially from women. Women cooked, cleaned, and nurtured their families, while under the control of men. It was not looked upon well when women strayed from this status quo. Emily Dickinson did, and this poem demonstratesRead MoreEssay about Death in Emily Dickenson1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeath in Emily Dickenson With the thought of death, many people become terrified as if it were some creature lurking behind a door ready to capture them at any moment. Unlike many, Emily Dickinson was infatuated with death and sought after it only to try and help answer the many questions which she pondered so often. Her poetry best illustrates the answers as to why she wrote about it constantly. She explains her reason for writing poetry, Ã¢â¬Å"I had a terror I could